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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Barriers to nurse–patient communication in Saudi Arabia: an integrative review

Author/yearStudy designMethodologyParticipantsSettingsQuality of the paperKey findings related to review
MD Al-Mendalawi [26]Cross-sectional surveyQuantitative116 patientsIn-patient at tertiary referred hospitalMediumPatients are satisfied with health services regardless of language barrier.
ZA Mani and MA Ibrahim [20]Cross-sectional surveyQuantitative77 nursesICU at tertiary referred hospitalHighThere are communication difficulties between nurses and patients in end-of-life care.
A Shubayra [27]Descriptive
Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews
Qualitative9 nursesPeritoneal dialysis at tertiary referred hospitalHighLanguage barriers impeded effective nursing education to patients.
M Silbermann, RM Fink, S-J Min, MP Mancuso, J Brant, R Hajjar, N Al-Alfi, L Baider, I Turker and K ElShamy [21]Descriptive surveyQuantitative776 health-care providersOncology department at three tertiary referred hospitalsHighThere are numerous communication difficulties in palliative care.
WA Suliman, E Welmann, T Omer and L Thomas [28]Descriptive surveyQuantitative393 patientsThree national guard health affairs facilitiesHighThere are communication barriers that influence nurse–patient relationships.
G Abudari, H Hazeim and G Ginete [29]Phenomenological designQualitative10 nursesOncology department at tertiary referred hospitalHighNon-Muslim nurses are facing several challenges in taking care of Muslim cancer patients.
AH Al-Doghaither [30]Not reportedQuantitative450 patientsIn-patient at university hospitalHighDifferent levels of satisfaction are perceived by patients related to nurses competency level or interpersonal skills
H Aljadhey, MA Mahmoud, MA Hassali, A Alrasheedy, A Alahmad, F Saleem, A Sheikh, M Murray and DW Bates [31]Exploratory designQualitative65 health-care providersSecondary level and Private hospitalMediumCommunication barriers threat patient safety (medication error).
AF Almutairi, G Gardner and A McCarthy [32]Cross-sectional survey
Case study design
Mixed method319 nursesIn-patient at tertiary referred hospitalHighNurses from different cultures have different perceptions about the safety environment.
BM Hammoudi, S Ismaile and O Abu Yahya [33]Cross-sectional surveyQuantitative367 nursesIn-patient at four tertiary referred hospitalsMediumNurses’ languages and cultural diversity influence medication administration as well as reporting errors.
A Khalaf, A Westergren, Ö Ekblom, HM Al-Hazzaa and V Berggren [34]Explorative designQualitative15 nursesIn-patient at secondary health level hospitalHighThere are differences in language, religion and culture among nurses providing health services.
AG Mohamed [35]Cross-sectional surveyQuantitative343 nursesFive hospitals at different health levelsMediumAccording to nurses, patients can be dissatisfied due to many reasons including communication.
J Mebrouk [36]Phenomenological designQualitative5 nursesIn-patient at tertiary referred hospitalHighSaudi nurses have enough knowledge regarding language, religion and cultural whereas expatriate lack knowledge. Expatriate nurses usually use non-verbal communication.
H Alabdulaziz, C Moss and B Copnell [17]Explanatory sequential designMixed methods234 nursesPaediatrics at secondary health level hospitalsHighThere are differences in language, religion and culture among nurses and patients.
DN Alosaimi and MM Ahmad [18]Descriptive
Semi-structured interviews
Qualitative20 nursesIn-patient at tertiary referred hospitalHighLimited verbal communication and limited knowledge of religion and culture exist among expatriate nurses.
MA Atallah, AM Hamdan-Mansour, MM Al-Sayed and AE Aboshaiqah [37]Cross-sectional designQuantitative100 patientsIn-patient at tertiary referred hospitalMediumDifferent levels of patient satisfaction occur depending on either nurses’ competency or interpersonal skills.
E Sidumo, VJ Ehlers and S Hattingh [38]Descriptive, exploratory study designQuantitative50 nursesObstetric unit at secondary level hospitalMediumLimited knowledge about cultural and religious practices exists among expatriate nurses.
H Al Fozan [39]Cross-sectional designQuantitative302 patients and family caregiversIn-patient of national guard health affairs facilityMediumPatients are satisfied with Saudi nurses who have same language, culture and religion.
P Halligan [19]Phenomenological designQualitative6 nursesICU at tertiary referred hospitalMediumPatients misinterpret some of the expatriate nurses’ non-verbal communication.
M Van Bommel [40]Phenomenological descriptiveQualitative63 nursesCCU at tertiary referred hospitalHighThere are language, cultural and religious diversity among expatriate nurses and patients in ICU.