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Table 5 The samples’ mean scores on pain interference with physical and emotional function

From: Hospitalized patients’ pain experience before and after the introduction of a nurse-based pain management programme: a separate sample pre and post study

Pain interference with Survey 1 Mean (SD) Survey 2 Mean (SD) Survey 3 Mean (SD) p-value
Survey 1 vs. Survey 2 Survey 1 vs. Survey 3 Survey 2 vs. Survey 3
Physical functions
 Activity in bed 4.6 (3.4) 4.6 (3.1) 3.9 (2.8) 1.000 0.026 0.021
 Activities out of bed 5.0 (3.6) 4.9 (3.1) 4.4 (3.1) 1.000 0.073 0.170
 Falling asleep 4.3 (3.1) 4.3 (2.8) 3.5 (3.1) 1.000 0.014 0.015
 Staying asleep 4.3 (3.1) 4.1 (3.0) 3.7 (3.2) 1.000 0.044 0.379
 Deep breathing and coughing 3.4 (3.2) 3.1 (3.4) 1.2 (2.2) 1.000 0.000 0.001
Emotional functions
 Relationships with others 3.6 (3.2) 3.0 (3.1) 2.8 (2.9) 0.089 0.010 1.000
 Anxious 5.4 (3.1) 5.3 (2.7) 4.3 (3.0) 1.000 0.000 0.001
 Emotion (Depression) 5.2 (3.0) 5.2 (2.7) 4.3 (3.1) 1.000 0.001 0.003
 Frightened 4.9 (3.2) 5.0 (3.0) 4.1 (3.4) 1.000 0.019 0.011
 Helplessness 3.7 (3.4) 3.8 (3.3) 3.1 (3.9) 1.000 0.142 0.036
  1. a P-value using one-way ANOVA with post hoc test
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