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Table 1 Summary of records reviewed

From: Nursing education challenges and solutions in Sub Saharan Africa: an integrative review

Author and year Country Tittle Contribution to nursing education
Middleton, L., Howard, A, Dohrn, J, Von Zinkernagel, D. et al., 2014 Sub Saharan The Nursing Education Partnership Initiative (NEPI): Innovations in nursing and midwifery education. Building on existing country leadership and government planning to increase the number and competencies of new nurses entering the profession. Country-level leadership, support for faculty workforce development and key educational processes and practices, and scaling up of proven educational methods and interventions at nursing educational institutions are key to ensuring sustainability and will help to achieve priority health goals for the countries of this region.
Mthembu, S., Mtshali, N., Frantz, J. 2014 South Africa Contextual determinants for community-based learning programmes in nursing education in South Africa Community Based Learning has emerged as a political instrument that has influenced not only a change in the country’s health system but has responded to the needs of the South African population at large
Goosby, E.P, von Zinkernagel, D. 2014 Sub Saharan The Medical and Nursing Education Partnership Initiatives. The MEPI and NEPI focus on strengthening learning institutions is central to the vision for expanding the pool of health professionals to meet the full range of a country’s health needs. A robust network of exchange between education institutions and training facilities, both within and across countries, is transforming the quality of medical and nursing education and augmenting a platform for research opportunities for faculty and clinicians, which also serves as an incentive to retain professionals in the country.
Jooste, K. & Jasper, M. 2012 South Africa A South African perspective: current position and challenges in health care service management and education in nursing. Different role players are involved in critical issues regarding the management and education of nursing in South Africa. Nurse managers are central to the success of service redesign, delivery and education. Nurse managers need to influence policy decisions regarding nursing service design and delivery, and the education required to prepare the next generation of practitioners for these new services.
Armstrong, S. & Rispel, L. 2015 South Africa Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection
Adejumo, O., Fakude, L. & Linda, N., 2014 South Africa Revisiting innovative approaches to teaching and learning in nursing programmes: Educators’ experiences with the use of a case-based teaching approach at a nursing school. Concerns raised included issues about the facilitation role of the teacher; the role of the student; curriculum alignment; assessment methods; and the role of the environment in case-based teaching and learning settings.
Marchi-Alves, L.M., Ventura, A., Trevizan, M.A., Mazzo, A. et al. 2013 Angola Challenges for nursing education in Angola: the perception of nurse leaders affiliated with professional education institutions. Lack of infrastructure, absence of trained human resources experts, bureaucratic problems to regularize the schools and lack of material resources hinder improvements. Public health education policies need to be established in Angola, including action guidelines that permit effective nursing activities. Professional education institutions need further regularizations and nurses need to be acknowledged as key elements for the qualitative enhancement of health services in the country.
Mutea, N. & Cullen, D., 2012 Kenya Kenya and distance education: A model to advance graduate nursing. A collaborative model is presented as a potential solution to advance graduate nursing. Four major constituents are identified including hospitals and agencies, communities of interest, Kenyan universities and international education partners. Each has a part to play including contributions to information, communication of opinion and expertise, money and support, infrastructure and in-kind resources. Distance education is cost-effective and will help in building capacity at various levels of nursing including leadership in clinical practice, teaching, administration and research.
McCarthy, C.F., Voss, J., Salmon, M.E., Gross, J.M., Kelley, M.A. & Riley, P.L, 2013 East, Central, and Southern Africa Nursing and midwifery regulatory reform in East, Central, and Southern Africa: a survey of key stakeholders. Information regarding effectively engaging leaders in regulatory reform by clarifying their roles, responsibilities, and activities regarding regulation overall as well as their specific perspectives on task shifting and pre-service reform.
Daniels, F.M., Linda, N.S., Bimray, P. & Sharps, P., 2014 South Africa Effect of increased student enrolment for a Bachelor of Nursing programme on health care service delivery. The changing learning environment, competition for learning opportunities and limitations in terms of clinical support posed challenges for professional nurses to perform their multifaceted role which includes clinical teaching and mentoring, and affected service delivery. Therefore, careful planning of students’ learning experiences in both theory and practice is imperative to ensure that teaching and learning and service delivery are not negatively affected
Wilson, L.L., Somerall, D., Theus, L., Rankin, S., Ngoma, C. & Chimwaza, A., 2014 Malawi, Zambia, Enhancing global health and education in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States through an inter-professional global health exchange program Program promoted inter-professional and cross-cultural understanding; fostered development of long-term sustainable partnerships between health professionals and educators in Zambia and the US; and created increased awareness and use of resources for global health education
Livingston P., Bailey J, Ntakiyiruta G, Mukwesi C, Whynot, S. & Brindley, P., 2014 Rwanda Development of a simulation and skills centre in East Africa: a Rwandan-Canadian partnership. Developed an adaptable model for simulation and skills centre development in low-resources settings.
Jacob, S., Holman, J., Msolomba, R., Wasili, R., Langdon, F., Levine, R., Mondiwa, M., Bateganya, M. & MacLachlan, E, 2015 Malawi Using a task analysis to strengthen nursing and midwifery pre-service education in Malawi Using task analysis, the identified gaps in clinical training and faculty supervision of students. The task analysis provided a robust approach to curriculum revision through identifying key content gaps. Other countries might consider adopting this approach to improving the content and relevancy of nursing and midwifery syllabi and curricula.
Kurth, A., Jacobs, S., Squires, A., Sliney, A., Davis, Stalls. & Portillo, C. 2016 Rwanda Investing in nurses is a prerequisite for ensuring universal health coverage The World Health Organization endorses task sharing to ensure universal health coverage in HIV and maternal health, which requires an investment in nursing education, retention, and professional growth opportunities.
Mtshali, N.G. & Gwele, N.S., 2016 South Africa Community-based nursing education in South Africa: A grounded-middle range theory The input from the community enhances the relevance of the curriculum to the priority needs of the surrounding community. It also ensures that the CBE curriculum is dynamic and is based on the present, because of the changes taking place in the community.
Botma, Y., 2014 Botswana How a monster became a princess: Curriculum development. Changing content driven curriculum to competence based curriculum improved training on nurses with a primary care focus
Bell, S.A., Rominski, S., Bam,V., Donkor, E. & Lori, J., 2013 Ghana An analysis of nursing education in Ghana: Priorities for scaling-up the nursing workforce Faculty and infrastructure shortages are common issues in nursing education and workforce expansion, these issues arecompounded by high rates of preventable disease and injury.
Kiarie, J., Farquhar, C., Redfield, R., Bosire, K., Nduti., Mwanda, W., M’lmunya, J. & Kibwage, I., 2015 Kenya Strengthening health systems by integrating health care, medical education, and research: University of Nairobi experience. The study suggested innovation building capacity of healthcare workers and students through the eBNM program. Students felt they had more opportunities to practice clinical skills, closer mentoring, and closer interactions with patients at the at the non-tertiary facilities than at the tertiary hospital. Health workers at the non-tertiary hospitals also reported improved quality of patient care, increased job satisfaction, and greater interest in research. County hospitals have retained employees and the nurses are upgrading their skills without losing income.
Blaauw, D., Ditlopo, P. & Rispel, L. 2014 South Africa Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and governance of nursing in South Africa, which will need to be addressed if important nursing education reforms are to be realised
Appiagyei, A.A. Kiriinya, R.N., Gross, J.M., Wambua, D.N., Oywer, E.O., Kamenju, A.K., Higgins, M.K., Riley, P.L. & Rogers, M.F. 2014 Kenya Informing the scale-up of Kenya’s nursing workforce: a mixed methods study of factors affecting pre-service training capacity and production To scale-up the nursing workforce in Kenya, concurrent investments in expanding the number of student nurse clinical placement sites, utilizing alternate forms of skills training, hiring more faculty and clinical instructors, and expanding the dormitory and classroom space to accommodate new students are needed to ensure that increases in student enrolment are not at the cost of quality nursing education.