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Table 1 The association between baseline characteristics and pain at baseline (moderate to severe) and time of healing (any pain)

From: Leg ulcer nursing care in the community: a prospective cohort study of the symptom of pain

    Baseline Healing
Characteristics1 Total VAS ≤ 3 VAS > 3 VAS=0 VAS > 0
(n=396) (n=250) (n=146) (n=231) (n=111)
Sex Female 216 (54.5) 134 (62.0) 82 (38.0) 115 (62.8) 68 (37.2)
Male 180 (45.5) 116 (64.4) 64 (35.6) 116 (73.0) 43 (27.0)
Living situation Alone 144 (36.4) 102 (70.8) 42 (29.2) 85 (66.4) 43 (33.6)
With others 252 (63.6) 148 (58.7) 104 (41.3) 146 (68.2) 68 (31.8)
Fully mobile Yes 312 (78.8) 197 (63.1) 115 (36.9) 185 (68.8) 84 (31.2)
No 84 (21.2) 53 (63.1) 31 (36.9) 46 (63.0) 27 (37.0)
Non-venous health history Yes 240 (60.6) 143 (59.6) 97 (40.4) 142 (70.0) 61 (30.0)
No 156 (39.4) 107 (68.6) 49 (31.4) 89 (64.0) 50 (36.0)
Leg ulcer pain on admission Yes 344 (86.9) 198 (57.6) 146 (42.4) 187 (64.7) 102 (35.3)
No 52 (13.1) 52 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 36 (94.7) 2 (5.3)
Pain at rest/night pain Yes 26 (6.6) 11 (42.3) 15 (57.7) 15 (62.5) 9 (37.5)
No 370 (93.4) 239 (64.6) 131 (35.4) 216 (67.9) 102 (32.1)
Medications for leg ulcer pain Yes 103 (26.0) 41 (39.8) 62 (60.2) 61 (64.2) 34 (35.8)
No 293 (74.0) 209 (71.3) 84 (28.7) 170 (68.8) 77 (31.2)
Intervention 4LB 197 (49.7) 128 (65.0) 69 (35.0) 121 (72.5) 46 (27.5)
SSB 199 (50.3) 122 (61.3) 77 (38.7) 110 (62.9) 65 (37.1)
# Co-morbidities None 69 (17.4) 49 (71.0) 20 (29.0) 42 (70.0) 18 (30.0)
1 - 2 249 (62.9) 155 (62.2) 94 (37.8) 145 (68.1) 68 (31.9)
≥ 3 78 (19.7) 46 (59.0) 32 (41.0) 44 (63.8) 25 (36.2)
Previous leg ulcers Yes 178 (44.9) 99 (55.6) 79 (44.4) 100 (69.0) 45 (31.0)
No 218 (55.1) 151 (69.3) 67 (30.7) 131 (66.5) 66 (33.5)
Previous compression Yes 237 (59.8) 134 (56.5) 103 (43.5) 133 (65.8) 69 (34.2)
No 159 (40.2) 116 (73.0) 43 (27.0) 98 (70.5) 41 (29.5)
Reference ulcer leg Right 197 (49.7) 121 (61.4) 76 (38.6) 120 (66.7) 60 (33.3)
Left 199 (50.3) 129 (64.8) 70 (35.2) 111 (68.5) 51 (31.5)
Edema on affected leg Yes 334 (85.2) 214 (64.1) 120 (35.9) 192 (66.0) 99 (34.0)
No 58 (14.8) 36 (62.1) 22 (37.9) 36 (75.0) 12 (25.0)
Full flexion on affected leg Yes 315 (81.0) 203 (64.4) 112 (35.6) 185 (68.0) 87 (32.0)
No 74 (19.0) 42 (56.8) 32 (43.2) 42 (65.6) 22 (34.4)
Age (years)*   65.0 (16.7) 65.4 (16.7) 64.4 (16.8) 65.8 (16.7) 63.9 (16.7)
Duration of current ulcer (weeks) ≤ 12 206 (52.0) 125 (60.7) 81 (39.3) 129 (69.4) 57 (30.6)
> 12 190 (48.0) 125 (65.8) 65 (34.2) 102 (65.4) 54 (34.6)
Time to healing days 62 [36/146] 69 [36/178] 61 [35/100] 63 [36/136] 62 [37/172]
Area (cm2) – Tracing ≤ 2.5 cm 162 (41.9) 91 (56.2) 71 (43.8) 95 (68.8) 43 (31.2)
> 2.5 to ≤ 10 cm 145 (37.5) 101 (69.7) 44 (30.3) 87 (67.4) 42 (32.6)
> 10 cm 80 (20.7) 54 (67.5) 26 (32.5) 45 (66.2) 23 (33.8)
ABPI on affected leg*   1.05 (0.15) 1.04 (0.15) 1.06 (0.15) 1.06 (0.15) 1.04 (0.14)
McGill Pain Indices Sensory 15.2 [6.1/27.3] 9.1 [3.0/18.2] 27.3 [18.2/42.4] 12.1 [3.0/24.2] 18.2 [9.1/30.3]
Affective 0.0 [0.0/8.3] 0.0 [0.0/0.0] 8.3 [0.0/25.0] 0.0 [0.0/8.3] 0.0 [0.0/8.3]
Total 11.1 [4.4/22.2] 6.7 [2.2/13.3] 22.2 [15.6/35.6] 8.9 [2.2/20.0] 13.3 [6.7/26.7]
PPI-VAS 2.0 [0.7/4.2] 1.0 [0.20/1.8] 5.0 [3.7/6.4] 1.8 [0.50/3.6] 2.3 [1.1/4.6]
SF-12 Component Summary Scores* Physical 39.0 (9.9) 39.6 (9.7) 38.1 (10.0) 40.3 (9.5) 37.3 (9.7)
Mental 51.5 (9.9) 53.3 (9.4) 48.3 (9.9) 51.9 (10.0) 49.8 (10.2)
Prescribed non-narcotics Yes 86 (21.7) 38 (44.2) 48 (55.8) 45 (58.4) 32 (41.6)
No 310 (78.3) 212 (68.4) 98 (31.6) 186 (70.2) 79 (29.8)
Non-narcotics for leg ulcer pain Yes 55 (64.0) 21 (38.2) 34 (61.8) 29 (58.0) 21 (42.0)
No 31 (36.0) 17 (54.8) 14 (45.2) 16 (59.3) 11 (40.7)
Prescribed NSAIDS Yes 44 (11.1) 25 (56.8) 19 (43.2) 18 (52.9) 16 (47.1)
  No 352 (88.9) 225 (63.9) 127 (36.1) 213 (69.2) 95 (30.8)
NSAIDS for leg ulcer pain Yes 11 (25.6) 4 (36.4) 7 (63.6) 4 (40.0) 6 (60.0)
  No 32 (74.4) 20 (62.5) 12 (37.5) 14 (60.9) 9 (39.1)
Prescribed Opiods Yes 31 (7.8) 8 (25.8) 23 (74.2) 17 (63.0) 10 (37.0)
  No 365 (92.2) 242 (66.3) 123 (33.7) 214 (67.9) 101 (32.1)
Opiods for leg ulcer pain Yes 16 (53.3) 1 (6.3) 15 (93.8) 8 (57.1) 6 (42.9)
  No 14 (46.7) 7 (50.0) 7 (50.0) 8 (66.7) 4 (33.3)
  1. 1Bolded values indicate p-value < 0.05 when comparing pain ≤ or > 3 at Baseline or when comparing pain = or > 0 at Healing; values in parentheses are percentages unless indicated otherwise; frequency values may not always total 100% due to missing data. *values are mean (s.d.); values are median [percentiles];. 4LB=four-layer bandage; SSB=Short-stretch bandage; ABPI=Ankle Brachial Pressure Index; PPI=Present Pain Intensity; VAS=Visual Analogue Scale.
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